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Key drawbacks in all variety of Lithium Ion batteries


Safety is the biggest concern in all lithium ion batteries. The thermal runaway of working materials in lithium ion battery system as found with common used battery materials that the no return temperature TNR was calculated is around 75DegC and the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is 66.5DegC. So, most lithium-ion battery fires and explosions come down due to a problem of short circuiting. This happens when the separator fails and lets the anode and cathode touch. And once those two get together, the battery starts to overheat and gets augmented to catch fire with chemicals of electrolyte.

High power with fast charging with longer range

As the physical property of Lithium is known it will need a complicated metallurgical alloying with other metals to exceed 1000 Kw/L. This will increase its cost and bring other side effects. Recently BMW experimented various cathode materials and three different anode materials. They found that the energy density gains from using next-generation cathode materials are limited, unless lithium metal is used as the anode. Main reason for this limitation is that higher capacity cathodes need correspondingly thicker anodes to hold the increased amount of lithium, drowning out some of the benefits of the cathode improvement. This exposes that Lithium ion batteries with a new alloyed metal will be more complicated.

Long lasting and a good Total cost of ownership

The major bottleneck is its usage cycle. A next gen lithium Ion battery will be extensively costlier to exceed 5000 cycles.

Raw material price stability

By year 2025 there will be 30% short supply to demand of lithium if the present trend continues.

Dependency of scarce metals

A dependency on Cobalt and Nickel is the major flop side. The improvised Lithium Ion batteries even extending its dependency on other pricey metals.

Present Lithium Ion rechargeable batteries:

The present rechargeable batteries in automotive and energy storage are primarily lithium ion batteries with liquid electrolyte. There are several chemistries and metallurgical combinations of Lithium ion batteries which are pre dominant.

Schematic View:

The main components in this battery are:

  1. Cathode: Positive electrode (Oxidized with expensive metals like Cobalt or Nickel)
  2. Electrolytes: Mainly liquid. There is a roadmap for Solid state
  3. Safety setups and insulators
  1. Anode: Negative electrode (Made out of Graphite or expensive metallurgical alloys)
  2. Separator
  3. External body and terminals

The major concern on Lithium Ion batteries are categorized in below five aspects. All variants of Lithium ion batteries including the upcoming Lithium Metal and solid state batteries too are victim of it.

The Aluminum based innovation by SATURNOSE:
Enhanced Altered Aluminum Ion (Ea2I)

Our immense research and experiments with an alloyed Aluminum Ion battery had provided an immense encouraging result. Aluminum is predominant easily available most used electrical conductor. Its electrochemical properties are very conducive. Years of research brought us closer to find a best fit rechargeable battery of world. There will be three variants of batteries where in couple of years we will provide an all solid aluminum rechargeable battery with energy density exceeding 1500 WH/L and capacity exceeding 600 WH/KG. Same will be remarkably cheaper to Lithium Ion batteries and will provide 3X charge-discharge cycles.

This is a SATURNOSE proprietary technology known as Enhanced Altered Aluminum Ion (Ea2I)

The primary objectives achieved with Ea2I are marvelous. New blended & doped Aluminum is poised to be a DISRUPTIVE element as an advanced battery materials with a step closer to solid state battery:

i. Cobalt / Nickel - free, high-energy, hybrid altered disordered rock-salt (DR) structures for cathodes.

ii. Doping to improve capacity retention upon cycling & dendrite free.

iii. High power and fast charging AL3-based mixed oxides for anodes;

iv. Coating for improving rate capability and ionic conductivity;

v. Improved safety and long battery life.

Common known features of AL3 + battery: Basics

Ea2I: Aluminum battery of SATURNOSE Vs Various
Lithium Ion technology

Lithium Iron
Phosphate: LiFeP
Lithium Nickel Cobalt
Aluminum Oxide:
Lithium Nickel
Cobalt Oxide:
Lithium Titanate:
Li2TiO3 (titanate)
Ea2I: Aluminum
blended Graphene
on nano tech and
future with Niobium
Voltages 3.20, 3.30V nominal;
typical operating
range 2.5–3.65V/cell
3.60V nominal; typical
operating range
3.60V, 3.70V nominal;
typical operating
range 3.0–4.2V/cell, or
3.60V, 3.70V nominal;
typical operating
range 3.0–4.2V/cell, or
2.4/3.2V nominal;
typical operating
range 3.0 /cell
Specific energy
90–120Wh/kg 200-260Wh/kg;
150–220Wh/kg 50–80Wh/kg 240–300Wh/kg
Charge (C-rate) 1C typical, charges to
3.65V; 3h charge time
0.7C, charges to 4.20V
(most cells), 3h charge
typical, fast charge
possible with some cells
0.7–1C, charges to 4.20V,
some go to 4.30V; 3h
charge typical. Charge
current above 1C
shortens battery life.
1C typical; 5C
maximum, charges
to 2.85V
1C typical; 3C
maximum, charges
to 2.5V..**
Discharge (C-rate) 1C, 25C on some cells;
40A pulse (2s); 2.50V
cut-off (lower that 2V
causes damage)
1C typical; 3.00V
cut-off; high
discharge rate
1C; 2C possible on
some cells; 2.50V
10C possible, 30C 5s
pulse; 1.80V cut-off
2.0 v Cutoff
Cycle life 2000 and higher
(related to depth
of discharge,
500 (related to
depth of discharge,
1000–2000 (related to
depth of discharge,
3,000–7,000 12000 to 20000
Thermal runaway 270°C (518°F) Very
safe battery even if
fully charged
150°C (302°F) typical,
High charge promotes
thermal runaway
210°C (410°F)
typical. High charge
promotes thermal
One of safest Li-ion
Extreme high and
immensely safe

How Ea2I: Aluminum is made and what
makes it different

SATURNOSE Ea2I: Aluminum blended battery is built on a proprietary technology which was researched and experimented in stealth mode since 2018. Several scientific experts and high end academicians worldwide at reputed institutes carried out the portions of approach in a coordinated matter.

The experiments and goals were to achieve a battery which can have a significance impact to replace combustion engines of fossil fuels on cost, performance and life of use. The experiments and research evolved that an industrial process to convert aluminum to an alloy of best electron density can be achieved. This also proved which can yield outperforming parameters on below:

1. Exceptional energy density

2. High power for capacity

3. Higher heat resistant

4. Simple and easy formation of alloys for cathode and anode.

5. Feasible high performance supporting advanced separator.

6. Feasible and powerful adaptability to work with liquid electrolyte and ease of devising solid electrolyte

7. Feasible adaption of can and collectors.

8. Wider interoperability with other materials like Graphene etc.

This is achieved in a process of proprietary preparation of alloying aluminum with various materials. 2 systems played very vital role. The patented technology of SATURNOSE crates an aluminum allow with Niobium in presence of other additives. Ea2I is Enhanced Altered Aluminum Ion formed out of it. This is a dissolved rock based approach on nanotechnology. The cathodes and anodes made out of it are extremely powerful as experimented in various labs. A compatible solid electrolyte increases the performance and life of battery.

Ea2I: Aluminum solid state battery –
Future technology of all batteries

We had created the platform for future batteries. Our Ea2I batteries will be a true smart high performance batteries, to simplify the usage and reap technical advantages. The battery will be a single console with inbuilt digital circuitry and embedded software. In addition to reduce costs for battery management the technology will improve the efficiency and performance. The future initiatives of smart vehicles, cloud based energy systems and user friendly appliances will be easily achieved out of it.

Extreme fast charging and high performance will not be the only attributes but a power of advanced computation platform merged with energy storage is the ultimate future technology.

Ea2I is poised to define the way re chargeable batteries should and perform.